Bibliography Updated – 11 more added!

I know we have been gone for awhile but we have not forgot about the site.  We have added 11 more to the Bibliography pages:

Stein, A. (2006). An octopus in the bathtub: The slippery nature of female sex offending. Sex Offender Law Report, 7(6), 81-81, 94-95.

Roe-Sepowitz, D., & Krysik, J. (2008). Examining the sexual offenses of female juveniles: The relevance of childhood maltreatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78(4), 405-412.

Fisher, N. L., & Pina, A. (2013). An overview of the literature on female-perpetrated adult male sexual victimization. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(1), 54-61.

Pflugradt, D. M., & Allen, B. P. (2013). Identifying sadists among female sexual offenders using the cumulative scale of severe sexual sadism. Sexual Offender Treatment, 8(1).

DeCou, C. R., Cole, T. T., Rowland, S. E., Kaplan, S. P., & Lynch, S. M. (2014). An ecological process model of female sex offending: The role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors. Journal of Sexual Abuse. doi:10.1177/1079063214556359

Gillespie, S. M., Williams, R., Elliott, I. A., Eldridge, H. U., Ashfield, S., & Beech, A. R. (2014). Characteristics of females who sexually offend: A comparison of solo and co-offenders. Journal of Sexual Abuse. doi:10.1177/1079063214556359.

Pflugradt, D., & Allen, B. (2014). Static risk factors predict sexual misconduct among incarcerated female sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 20(1), 85-93.

Stathopoulos, Mary & Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault & Australian Institute of Family Studies (2014). The exception that proves the rule female sex offending and the gendered nature of sexual violence. Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, Vic

Williams, K. S., & Bierie, D. M. (2014). An incident-based comparison of female and male sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Abuse. doi:10.1177/1079063214544333

Wurtele, S. K., Simons, D. A., & Moreno, T. (2014). Sexual interest in children among an online sample of men and women: Prevalence and correlates. Journal of Sexual Abuse, 26, 546-568.

McLeod, D. A. (2015). Female offenders in child sexual abuse cases: A national picture. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 24(15), 97-114. doi:10.1080/10538712.2015.978925

As you can see we added some we missed, some new and we corrected a few that were broken but they aren’t shown here.

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Another study on prevalence rates and female sex offenders

We have posted previously about a study that looked at prevalence rates of male and female sex offenders and found they were about the same.  Now we are adding another study that has found similar results.  According to a CNN article that quoted this study

“The study also found that males and females carried out sexual violence at strikingly similar rates after the age of 18 – 52% of males and 48% of females. The study classified sexual violence into a few categories: foresexual or presexual contact (kissing, touching, etc. against their will), coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. Women were more likely to instigate unwanted foresexual contact.”

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2014). Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents. Jama Pediatrics, 167(12), 1125-1134.

ABSTRACT

Importance  Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators—especially those not involved with the criminal justice system.

Objective  To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths’ biological sex and age.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape.

Results  Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration.

Conclusions and Relevance  Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual media are apparent, suggesting a need to monitor adolescents’ consumption of this material. Victim blaming appears to be common, whereas experiencing consequences does not. There is therefore urgent need for school programs that encourage bystander intervention as well as implementation of policies that could enhance the likelihood that perpetrators are identified.

With more than 1 million victims and associated costs of almost $127 billion each year, sexual violence is a significant public health problem.1 In addition to societal costs, the impact on the individual can be high, including increased rates of posttraumatic stress disorder,2 physical health problems,3 and suicidal behavior.4

Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence,57 making this developmental time a critical period of inquiry. Nonetheless, nationwide estimates for adolescent perpetrators of sexual violence in community samples are lacking8 and state estimates vary significantly.1 Moreover, almost all of the sexual violence perpetration literature focuses on boys as the sexual aggressors and females as victims.912 In studies that include both adolescent males and females as perpetrators, females are less likely to engage in sexually violent behavior than males.1315 Research examining specific event characteristics of male and female sexual offenders is even more limited and is conflicting as to whether differences exist.16,17 There is a clear need for a better understanding not just of prevalence rates but also how sexual violence may be different for older and younger adolescents as well as males and females. Given emerging interest in possible links between exposure to sexual material and sexual behavior and attitudes1820 as well as violent pornography and violent sexual behavior,21 further research examining the associations between media and sexual violence also is critical.

 

It is interesting to see this study as other research has pointed to female offenders offending against children/adolescents more than adults.

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Bibliography pages updated

We have updated the bibliography pages and the book list.  We have added 2 new books to the listings and they are:

Davis, J. (2014). Female sex predators: A crime epidemic. Old Town Publishing.

Gavin, H., & Porter, T. (2015). Female aggression. Wiley-Blackwell

We now have over 650+ listings in the bibliography dating from 1857 through the present.  More and more research is slowly being done on this subject and as researchers begin to look at this issue they are finding that the problem is much larger than people think.

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